Class III Strong Verbs

belga III “swell, inflate”

fragmentarily attested

transitive (acc)

active voice
present indicative present subjunctive
1sg ek belg 1pl vér belgum 1sg ek belga 1pl vér belgim
2sg þú belgr 2pl þér belgið 2sg þú belgir 2pl þér belgið
3sg hon belgr 3pl þau belga 3sg hon belgi 3pl þau belgi
preterite indicative preterite subjunctive
1sg ek balg 1pl vér bulgum 1sg ek bylga 1pl vér bylgim
2sg þú balgt 2pl þér bulguð 2sg þú bylgir 2pl þér bylgið
3sg hon balg 3pl þau bulgu 3sg hon bylgi 3pl þau bylgi
preterite infinitive bulgu
past participle f. bólgin m. bólginn n. bólgit
imperative 2sg belg 1pl belgum 2pl belgið
middle voice: belgask (not attested)
present indicative present subjunctive
1sg ek belgumk 1pl vér belgumk 1sg ek belgumk 1pl vér belgimk
2sg þú belgsk 2pl þér belgizk 2sg þú belgisk 2pl þér belgizk
3sg hon belgsk 3pl þau belgask 3sg hon belgisk 3pl þau belgisk
preterite indicative preterite subjunctive
1sg ek bulgumk 1pl vér bulgumk 1sg ek bylgumk 1pl vér bylgimk
2sg þú balgzk 2pl þér bulguzk 2sg þú bylgisk 2pl þér bylgizk
3sg hon balgsk 3pl þau bulgusk 3sg hon bylgisk 3pl þau bylgisk
past participle n. bólgizk
imperative 2sg belgsk 1pl belgumk 2pl belgizk

PG *belganą, OE belgan III and the adjective bolgenmōd “irate,” ME belwen, Dutch verbolgen “irate.” Probably related via Celtic to the borrowed Latin demonym Belgae and thus MnE Belgium. Only the past participle is attested. Also found as weak 1 belgja (belgði, belgðr).

vowel lengthening

Corpus search: present active / preterite active / present reflexive / preterite reflexive

bella III “hit”

“hurt”

fragmentarily attested

transitive (dat)

active voice
present indicative present subjunctive
1sg ek bell 1pl vér bellum 1sg ek bella 1pl vér bellim
2sg þú bellr 2pl þér bellið 2sg þú bellir 2pl þér bellið
3sg hon bellr 3pl þau bella 3sg hon belli 3pl þau belli
preterite indicative preterite subjunctive
1sg ek ball 1pl vér bullum 1sg ek bylla 1pl vér byllim
2sg þú ballt 2pl þér bulluð 2sg þú byllir 2pl þér byllið
3sg hon ball 3pl þau bullu 3sg hon bylli 3pl þau bylli
preterite infinitive bullu
past participle f. bollin m. bollinn n. bollit
imperative 2sg bell 1pl bellum 2pl bellið
middle voice: bellask
present indicative present subjunctive
1sg ek bellumk 1pl vér bellumk 1sg ek bellumk 1pl vér bellimk
2sg þú bellsk 2pl þér bellizk 2sg þú bellisk 2pl þér bellizk
3sg hon bellsk 3pl þau bellask 3sg hon bellisk 3pl þau bellisk
preterite indicative preterite subjunctive
1sg ek bullumk 1pl vér bullumk 1sg ek byllumk 1pl vér byllimk
2sg þú ballzk 2pl þér bulluzk 2sg þú byllisk 2pl þér byllizk
3sg hon ballsk 3pl þau bullusk 3sg hon byllisk 3pl þau byllisk
past participle n. bollizk
imperative 2sg bellsk 1pl bellumk 2pl bellizk

PG *bellaną. Only the infinitive and preterite singular are attested. Cf. class 1 weak bella (belldi, belldr) “dare.”

assimilation  ·  cluster reduction

Corpus search: present active / preterite active / present reflexive / preterite reflexive

binda III “bind, tie”

“spell-bind; fix, make binding”

highly frequent

transitive (acc of thing, dat of means)

active voice
present indicative present subjunctive
1sg ek bind 1pl vér bindum 1sg ek binda 1pl vér bindim
2sg þú bindr 2pl þér bindið 2sg þú bindir 2pl þér bindið
3sg hon bindr 3pl þau binda 3sg hon bindi 3pl þau bindi
preterite indicative preterite subjunctive
1sg ek batt 1pl vér bundum 1sg ek bynda 1pl vér byndim
2sg þú bazt 2pl þér bunduð 2sg þú byndir 2pl þér byndið
3sg hon batt 3pl þau bundu 3sg hon byndi 3pl þau byndi
preterite infinitive bundu
past participle f. bundin m. bundinn n. bundit
imperative 2sg bitt 1pl bindum 2pl bindið
middle voice: bindask “commit; keep oneself in check”
present indicative present subjunctive
1sg ek bindumk 1pl vér bindumk 1sg ek bindumk 1pl vér bindimk
2sg þú binzk 2pl þér bindizk 2sg þú bindisk 2pl þér bindizk
3sg hon binzk 3pl þau bindask 3sg hon bindisk 3pl þau bindisk
preterite indicative preterite subjunctive
1sg ek bundumk 1pl vér bundumk 1sg ek byndumk 1pl vér byndimk
2sg þú bazk 2pl þér bunduzk 2sg þú byndisk 2pl þér byndizk
3sg hon bazk 3pl þau bundusk 3sg hon byndisk 3pl þau byndisk
past participle n. bundizk
imperative 2sg bizk 1pl bindumk 2pl bindizk

PG *bindaną, OE bindan, ME bnden, MnE bind, Dutch, German binden. Imperative variant bind; preterite band with 2sg batt. The 2sg preterite form bazt coincides with the corresponding form of biðja.

final devoicing  ·  assimilation  ·  cluster reduction

Corpus search: present active / preterite active / present reflexive / preterite reflexive

bjarga III “help, protect”

“save”

frequent

transitive (dat)

active voice
present indicative present subjunctive
1sg ek berg 1pl vér bjǫrgum 1sg ek bjarga 1pl vér bjargim
2sg þú bergr 2pl þér bjargið 2sg þú bjargir 2pl þér bjargið
3sg hon bergr 3pl þau bjarga 3sg hon bjargi 3pl þau bjargi
preterite indicative preterite subjunctive
1sg ek barg 1pl vér burgum 1sg ek byrga 1pl vér byrgim
2sg þú bargt 2pl þér burguð 2sg þú byrgir 2pl þér byrgið
3sg hon barg 3pl þau burgu 3sg hon byrgi 3pl þau byrgi
preterite infinitive burgu
past participle f. borgin m. borginn n. borgit
imperative 2sg bjarg 1pl bjǫrgum 2pl bjargið
middle voice: bjargask “cope”
present indicative present subjunctive
1sg ek bjǫrgumk 1pl vér bjǫrgumk 1sg ek bjǫrgumk 1pl vér bjargimk
2sg þú bergsk 2pl þér bjargizk 2sg þú bjargisk 2pl þér bjargizk
3sg hon bergsk 3pl þau bjargask 3sg hon bjargisk 3pl þau bjargisk
preterite indicative preterite subjunctive
1sg ek burgumk 1pl vér burgumk 1sg ek byrgumk 1pl vér byrgimk
2sg þú bargzk 2pl þér burguzk 2sg þú byrgisk 2pl þér byrgizk
3sg hon bargsk 3pl þau burgusk 3sg hon byrgisk 3pl þau byrgisk
past participle n. borgizk
imperative 2sg bjargsk 1pl bjǫrgumk 2pl bjargizk

PG *berganą, OE beorgan III, ME berwen, Dutch bergen “salvage; stow,” German bergen “save.”

breaking

Corpus search: present active / preterite active / present reflexive / preterite reflexive

bregða III “draw (a weapon)”

“swing, reposition rapidly; alter; give up, break off; reproach”

highly frequent

transitive/impersonal transitive (dat)/impersonal intransitive

active voice
present indicative present subjunctive
1sg ek bregð 1pl vér bregðum 1sg ek bregða 1pl vér bregðim
2sg þú bregðr 2pl þér bregðið 2sg þú bregðir 2pl þér bregðið
3sg hon bregðr 3pl þau bregða 3sg hon bregði 3pl þau bregði
preterite indicative preterite subjunctive
1sg ek brá 1pl vér brugðum 1sg ek brygða 1pl vér brygðim
2sg þú brátt 2pl þér brugðuð 2sg þú brygðir 2pl þér brygðið
3sg hon brá 3pl þau brugðu 3sg hon brygði 3pl þau brygði
preterite infinitive brugðu
past participle f. brugðin m. brugðinn n. brugðit
imperative 2sg bregð 1pl bregðum 2pl bregðið
middle voice: bregðask “fail; be at odds; slip; change; simulate”
present indicative present subjunctive
1sg ek bregðumk 1pl vér bregðumk 1sg ek bregðumk 1pl vér bregðimk
2sg þú bregzk 2pl þér bregðizk 2sg þú bregðisk 2pl þér bregðizk
3sg hon bregzk 3pl þau bregðask 3sg hon bregðisk 3pl þau bregðisk
preterite indicative preterite subjunctive
1sg ek brugðumk 1pl vér brugðumk 1sg ek brygðumk 1pl vér brygðimk
2sg þú brázk 2pl þér brugðuzk 2sg þú brygðisk 2pl þér brygðizk
3sg hon brásk 3pl þau brugðusk 3sg hon brygðisk 3pl þau brygðisk
past participle n. brugðizk
imperative 2sg bregzk 1pl bregðumk 2pl bregðizk

PG *bregdaną, OE bregdan III, ME breiden, weak MnE braid, Dutch breien “knit.”

vowel lengthening  ·  consonant lengthening

Corpus search: present active / preterite active / present reflexive / preterite reflexive

brenna III “burn”

“be burned”

frequent

intransitive

active voice
present indicative present subjunctive
1sg ek brenn 1pl vér brennum 1sg ek brenna 1pl vér brennim
2sg þú brennr 2pl þér brennið 2sg þú brennir 2pl þér brennið
3sg hon brennr 3pl þau brenna 3sg hon brenni 3pl þau brenni
preterite indicative preterite subjunctive
1sg ek brann 1pl vér brunnum 1sg ek brynna 1pl vér brynnim
2sg þú brannt 2pl þér brunnuð 2sg þú brynnir 2pl þér brynnið
3sg hon brann 3pl þau brunnu 3sg hon brynni 3pl þau brynni
preterite infinitive brunnu
past participle f. brunnin m. brunninn n. brunnit
imperative 2sg brenn 1pl brennum 2pl brennið

PG *brinnaną, OE byrnan III, weak Dutch branden, German brennen. The main source of weak ME brennen, MnE burn. The causative is brenna 1. Earlier form brinna; present variants brenn, breþr.

assimilation  ·  cluster reduction

Corpus search: present active / preterite active

bresta III “burst”

“resound; break out; fail, fall short”

frequent

intransitive

active voice
present indicative present subjunctive
1sg ek brest 1pl vér brestum 1sg ek bresta 1pl vér brestim
2sg þú brestr 2pl þér brestið 2sg þú brestir 2pl þér brestið
3sg hon brestr 3pl þau bresta 3sg hon bresti 3pl þau bresti
preterite indicative preterite subjunctive
1sg ek brast 1pl vér brustum 1sg ek brysta 1pl vér brystim
2sg þú braszt 2pl þér brustuð 2sg þú brystir 2pl þér brystið
3sg hon brast 3pl þau brustu 3sg hon brysti 3pl þau brysti
preterite infinitive brustu
past participle f. brostin m. brostinn n. brostit
imperative 2sg brest 1pl brestum 2pl brestið

PG *brestaną, OE berstan III, ME bresten, MnE burst, partly weak Dutch barsten, German bersten.

Corpus search: present active / preterite active

detta III “fall (dead)”

“go numb”

common

intransitive

active voice
present indicative present subjunctive
1sg ek dett 1pl vér dettum 1sg ek detta 1pl vér dettim
2sg þú dettr 2pl þér dettið 2sg þú dettir 2pl þér dettið
3sg hon dettr 3pl þau detta 3sg hon detti 3pl þau detti
preterite indicative preterite subjunctive
1sg ek datt 1pl vér duttum 1sg ek dytta 1pl vér dyttim
2sg þú dazt 2pl þér duttuð 2sg þú dyttir 2pl þér dyttið
3sg hon datt 3pl þau duttu 3sg hon dytti 3pl þau dytti
preterite infinitive duttu
past participle f. dottin m. dottinn n. dottit
imperative 2sg dett 1pl dettum 2pl dettið

PG *dentaną.

assimilation  ·  cluster reduction

Corpus search: present active / preterite active

drekka III “drink”

“toast, celebrate/commemorate, feast; suckle; swallow; gush”

frequent

transitive (acc)/impersonal intransitive

active voice
present indicative present subjunctive
1sg ek drekk 1pl vér drekkum 1sg ek drekka 1pl vér drekkim
2sg þú drekkr 2pl þér drekkið 2sg þú drekkir 2pl þér drekkið
3sg hon drekkr 3pl þau drekka 3sg hon drekki 3pl þau drekki
preterite indicative preterite subjunctive
1sg ek drakk 1pl vér drukkum 1sg ek drykka 1pl vér drykkim
2sg þú drakkt 2pl þér drukkuð 2sg þú drykkir 2pl þér drykkið
3sg hon drakk 3pl þau drukku 3sg hon drykki 3pl þau drykki
preterite infinitive drukku
past participle f. drukkin m. drukkinn n. drukkit
imperative 2sg drekk 1pl drekkum 2pl drekkið
middle voice: drekkask
present indicative present subjunctive
1sg ek drekkumk 1pl vér drekkumk 1sg ek drekkumk 1pl vér drekkimk
2sg þú drekksk 2pl þér drekkizk 2sg þú drekkisk 2pl þér drekkizk
3sg hon drekksk 3pl þau drekkask 3sg hon drekkisk 3pl þau drekkisk
preterite indicative preterite subjunctive
1sg ek drukkumk 1pl vér drukkumk 1sg ek drykkumk 1pl vér drykkimk
2sg þú drakkzk 2pl þér drukkuzk 2sg þú drykkisk 2pl þér drykkizk
3sg hon drakksk 3pl þau drukkusk 3sg hon drykkisk 3pl þau drykkisk
past participle n. drukkizk
imperative 2sg drekksk 1pl drekkumk 2pl drekkizk

PG *drinkaną, OE drincan III, ME drinken, MnE drink, Dutch drinken, German trinken. The causative is drekkja 1.

assimilation

Corpus search: present active / preterite active / present reflexive / preterite reflexive

finna III “(seek to) find”

“notice; be, exist; invent, discover; meet; pay”

highly frequent

transitive/impersonal transitive (acc)

active voice
present indicative present subjunctive
1sg ek finn 1pl vér finnum 1sg ek finna 1pl vér finnim
2sg þú finnr 2pl þér finnið 2sg þú finnir 2pl þér finnið
3sg hon finnr 3pl þau finna 3sg hon finni 3pl þau finni
preterite indicative preterite subjunctive
1sg ek fann 1pl vér fundum 1sg ek fynda 1pl vér fyndim
2sg þú fannt 2pl þér funduð 2sg þú fyndir 2pl þér fyndið
3sg hon fann 3pl þau fundu 3sg hon fyndi 3pl þau fyndi
preterite infinitive fundu
past participle f. fundin m. fundinn n. fundit
imperative 2sg finn 1pl finnum 2pl finnið
middle voice: finnask “exist, occur; be found; meet”
present indicative present subjunctive
1sg ek finnumk 1pl vér finnumk 1sg ek finnumk 1pl vér finnimk
2sg þú finnsk 2pl þér finnizk 2sg þú finnisk 2pl þér finnizk
3sg hon finnsk 3pl þau finnask 3sg hon finnisk 3pl þau finnisk
preterite indicative preterite subjunctive
1sg ek fundumk 1pl vér fundumk 1sg ek fyndumk 1pl vér fyndimk
2sg þú fannzk 2pl þér funduzk 2sg þú fyndisk 2pl þér fyndizk
3sg hon fannsk 3pl þau fundusk 3sg hon fyndisk 3pl þau fyndisk
past participle n. fundizk
imperative 2sg finnsk 1pl finnumk 2pl finnizk

PG *finþaną, OE findan III, ME fīnden, MnE find, Dutch vinden, German finden. Present variants finn, fiþr, preterite plural funnu, participle funninn, fynninn.

assimilation  ·  cluster reduction  ·  epenthesis

Corpus search: present active / preterite active / present reflexive / preterite reflexive

gjalda III “pay”

“give back; suffer; cost”

frequent

transitive (dat of recipient, acc of thing; or gen: differs by sense)

active voice
present indicative present subjunctive
1sg ek geld 1pl vér gjǫldum 1sg ek gjalda 1pl vér gjaldim
2sg þú geldr 2pl þér gjaldið 2sg þú gjaldir 2pl þér gjaldið
3sg hon geldr 3pl þau gjalda 3sg hon gjaldi 3pl þau gjaldi
preterite indicative preterite subjunctive
1sg ek galt 1pl vér guldum 1sg ek gylda 1pl vér gyldim
2sg þú galzt 2pl þér gulduð 2sg þú gyldir 2pl þér gyldið
3sg hon galt 3pl þau guldu 3sg hon gyldi 3pl þau gyldi
preterite infinitive guldu
past participle f. goldin m. goldinn n. goldit
imperative 2sg gjalt 1pl gjǫldum 2pl gjaldið
middle voice: gjaldask
present indicative present subjunctive
1sg ek gjǫldumk 1pl vér gjǫldumk 1sg ek gjǫldumk 1pl vér gjaldimk
2sg þú gelzk 2pl þér gjaldizk 2sg þú gjaldisk 2pl þér gjaldizk
3sg hon gelzk 3pl þau gjaldask 3sg hon gjaldisk 3pl þau gjaldisk
preterite indicative preterite subjunctive
1sg ek guldumk 1pl vér guldumk 1sg ek gyldumk 1pl vér gyldimk
2sg þú galzk 2pl þér gulduzk 2sg þú gyldisk 2pl þér gyldizk
3sg hon galzk 3pl þau guldusk 3sg hon gyldisk 3pl þau gyldisk
past participle n. goldizk
imperative 2sg gjalzk 1pl gjǫldumk 2pl gjaldizk

PG *geldaną, OE gyldan III, ME yēlden, weak MnE yield, Dutch gelden, German gelten “be applicable.” Variant gelda.

breaking  ·  final devoicing

Corpus search: present active / preterite active / present reflexive / preterite reflexive

gjalla III “yell, shriek”

“resound”

common

intransitive/impersonal intransitive

active voice
present indicative present subjunctive
1sg ek gell 1pl vér gjǫllum 1sg ek gjalla 1pl vér gjallim
2sg þú gellr 2pl þér gjallið 2sg þú gjallir 2pl þér gjallið
3sg hon gellr 3pl þau gjalla 3sg hon gjalli 3pl þau gjalli
preterite indicative preterite subjunctive
1sg ek gall 1pl vér gullum 1sg ek gylla 1pl vér gyllim
2sg þú gallt 2pl þér gulluð 2sg þú gyllir 2pl þér gyllið
3sg hon gall 3pl þau gullu 3sg hon gylli 3pl þau gylli
preterite infinitive gullu
past participle f. gollin m. gollinn n. gollit
imperative 2sg gjall 1pl gjǫllum 2pl gjallið

PG *gellaną, OE gyllan III, ME yellen, weak MnE yell, Dutch gillen, German gellen. Present variant gell. Past participle not attested.

breaking  ·  assimilation  ·  cluster reduction

Corpus search: present active / preterite active

gnella III “shriek”

fragmentarily attested

intransitive

active voice
present indicative present subjunctive
1sg ek gnell 1pl vér gnellum 1sg ek gnella 1pl vér gnellim
2sg þú gnellr 2pl þér gnellið 2sg þú gnellir 2pl þér gnellið
3sg hon gnellr 3pl þau gnella 3sg hon gnelli 3pl þau gnelli
preterite indicative preterite subjunctive
1sg ek gnall 1pl vér gnullum 1sg ek gnylla 1pl vér gnyllim
2sg þú gnallt 2pl þér gnulluð 2sg þú gnyllir 2pl þér gnyllið
3sg hon gnall 3pl þau gnullu 3sg hon gnylli 3pl þau gnylli
preterite infinitive gnullu
past participle f. gnollin m. gnollinn n. gnollit
imperative 2sg gnell 1pl gnellum 2pl gnellið

PG *gnellaną. Only the preterite plural is attested.

assimilation  ·  cluster reduction

Corpus search: present active / preterite active

gnesta III “clash, crack, thump”

rare

intransitive

active voice
present indicative present subjunctive
1sg ek gnest 1pl vér gnestum 1sg ek gnesta 1pl vér gnestim
2sg þú gnestr 2pl þér gnestið 2sg þú gnestir 2pl þér gnestið
3sg hon gnestr 3pl þau gnesta 3sg hon gnesti 3pl þau gnesti
preterite indicative preterite subjunctive
1sg ek gnast 1pl vér gnustum 1sg ek gnysta 1pl vér gnystim
2sg þú gnaszt 2pl þér gnustuð 2sg þú gnystir 2pl þér gnystið
3sg hon gnast 3pl þau gnustu 3sg hon gnysti 3pl þau gnysti
preterite infinitive gnustu
past participle f. gnostin m. gnostinn n. gnostit
imperative 2sg gnest 1pl gnestum 2pl gnestið

PG *gnestaną. Cf. weak German knistern “crackle.”

Corpus search: present active / preterite active

gyggva III “frighten”

fragmentarily attested

transitive/impersonal transitive (dat)

active voice
present indicative present subjunctive
1sg ek gygg 1pl vér gyggum 1sg ek gyggva 1pl vér gyggvim
2sg þú gyggr 2pl þér gyggvið 2sg þú gyggvir 2pl þér gyggvið
3sg hon gyggr 3pl þau gyggva 3sg hon gyggvi 3pl þau gyggvi
preterite indicative preterite subjunctive
1sg ek gǫgg 1pl vér guggum 1sg ek gygga 1pl vér gyggim
2sg þú gǫggt 2pl þér gugguð 2sg þú gyggir 2pl þér gyggið
3sg hon gǫgg 3pl þau guggu 3sg hon gyggi 3pl þau gyggi
preterite infinitive guggu
past participle f. guggin m. gugginn n. guggit
imperative 2sg gygg 1pl gyggum 2pl gyggvið
middle voice: gyggvask (not attested)
present indicative present subjunctive
1sg ek gyggumk 1pl vér gyggumk 1sg ek gyggumk 1pl vér gyggvimk
2sg þú gyggsk 2pl þér gyggvizk 2sg þú gyggvisk 2pl þér gyggvizk
3sg hon gyggsk 3pl þau gyggvask 3sg hon gyggvisk 3pl þau gyggvisk
preterite indicative preterite subjunctive
1sg ek guggumk 1pl vér guggumk 1sg ek gyggumk 1pl vér gyggimk
2sg þú gǫggzk 2pl þér gugguzk 2sg þú gyggisk 2pl þér gyggizk
3sg hon gǫggsk 3pl þau guggusk 3sg hon gyggisk 3pl þau gyggisk
past participle n. guggizk
imperative 2sg gyggsk 1pl gyggumk 2pl gyggvizk

Perhaps PG *gewwaną. Variant gyggja. Preterite not attested.

sharpening  ·  semivowel loss

Corpus search: present active / preterite active / present reflexive / preterite reflexive

hjálpa III “help”

“save”

frequent

transitive (dat)

active voice
present indicative present subjunctive
1sg ek help 1pl vér hjálpum 1sg ek hjálpa 1pl vér hjálpim
2sg þú helpr 2pl þér hjálpið 2sg þú hjálpir 2pl þér hjálpið
3sg hon helpr 3pl þau hjálpa 3sg hon hjálpi 3pl þau hjálpi
preterite indicative preterite subjunctive
1sg ek halp 1pl vér hulpum 1sg ek hylpa 1pl vér hylpim
2sg þú halpt 2pl þér hulpuð 2sg þú hylpir 2pl þér hylpið
3sg hon halp 3pl þau hulpu 3sg hon hylpi 3pl þau hylpi
preterite infinitive hulpu
past participle f. hjólpin m. hjólpinn n. hjólpit
imperative 2sg hjálp 1pl hjálpum 2pl hjálpið
middle voice: hjálpask
present indicative present subjunctive
1sg ek hjálpumk 1pl vér hjálpumk 1sg ek hjálpumk 1pl vér hjálpimk
2sg þú helpsk 2pl þér hjálpizk 2sg þú hjálpisk 2pl þér hjálpizk
3sg hon helpsk 3pl þau hjálpask 3sg hon hjálpisk 3pl þau hjálpisk
preterite indicative preterite subjunctive
1sg ek hulpumk 1pl vér hulpumk 1sg ek hylpumk 1pl vér hylpimk
2sg þú halpzk 2pl þér hulpuzk 2sg þú hylpisk 2pl þér hylpizk
3sg hon halpsk 3pl þau hulpusk 3sg hon hylpisk 3pl þau hylpisk
past participle n. hjólpizk
imperative 2sg hjálpsk 1pl hjálpumk 2pl hjálpizk

PG *helpaną, OE helpan III, ME helpen, weak MnE help, Dutch helpen, German helfen. Earlier form hjalpa; preterite variant hjálp.

breaking  ·  vowel lengthening

Corpus search: present active / preterite active / present reflexive / preterite reflexive

hnøggva III “strike”

“deprive; stumble”

rare

transitive (dat)/intransitive

active voice
present indicative present subjunctive
1sg ek hnøgg 1pl vér hnøggum 1sg ek hnøggva 1pl vér hnøggvim
2sg þú hnøggr 2pl þér hnøggvið 2sg þú hnøggvir 2pl þér hnøggvið
3sg hon hnøggr 3pl þau hnøggva 3sg hon hnøggvi 3pl þau hnøggvi
preterite indicative preterite subjunctive
1sg ek hnǫgg 1pl vér hnuggum 1sg ek hnygga 1pl vér hnyggim
2sg þú hnǫggt 2pl þér hnugguð 2sg þú hnyggir 2pl þér hnyggið
3sg hon hnǫgg 3pl þau hnuggu 3sg hon hnyggi 3pl þau hnyggi
preterite infinitive hnuggu
past participle f. hnuggin m. hnugginn n. hnuggit
imperative 2sg hnøgg 1pl hnøggum 2pl hnøggvið
middle voice: hnøggvask
present indicative present subjunctive
1sg ek hnøggumk 1pl vér hnøggumk 1sg ek hnøggumk 1pl vér hnøggvimk
2sg þú hnøggsk 2pl þér hnøggvizk 2sg þú hnøggvisk 2pl þér hnøggvizk
3sg hon hnøggsk 3pl þau hnøggvask 3sg hon hnøggvisk 3pl þau hnøggvisk
preterite indicative preterite subjunctive
1sg ek hnuggumk 1pl vér hnuggumk 1sg ek hnyggumk 1pl vér hnyggimk
2sg þú hnǫggzk 2pl þér hnugguzk 2sg þú hnyggisk 2pl þér hnyggizk
3sg hon hnǫggsk 3pl þau hnuggusk 3sg hon hnyggisk 3pl þau hnyggisk
past participle n. hnuggizk
imperative 2sg hnøggsk 1pl hnøggumk 2pl hnøggvizk

PG *hnewwaną. Variants hnyggva, hnyggja.

sharpening  ·  semivowel loss

Corpus search: present active / preterite active / present reflexive / preterite reflexive

hrinda III “push, throw”

“kick; chase; overthrow; annul; cloud”

frequent

transitive (dat)/impersonal intransitive

active voice
present indicative present subjunctive
1sg ek hrind 1pl vér hrindum 1sg ek hrinda 1pl vér hrindim
2sg þú hrindr 2pl þér hrindið 2sg þú hrindir 2pl þér hrindið
3sg hon hrindr 3pl þau hrinda 3sg hon hrindi 3pl þau hrindi
preterite indicative preterite subjunctive
1sg ek hratt 1pl vér hrundum 1sg ek hrynda 1pl vér hryndim
2sg þú hrazt 2pl þér hrunduð 2sg þú hryndir 2pl þér hryndið
3sg hon hratt 3pl þau hrundu 3sg hon hryndi 3pl þau hryndi
preterite infinitive hrundu
past participle f. hrundin m. hrundinn n. hrundit
imperative 2sg hritt 1pl hrindum 2pl hrindið
middle voice: hrindask
present indicative present subjunctive
1sg ek hrindumk 1pl vér hrindumk 1sg ek hrindumk 1pl vér hrindimk
2sg þú hrinzk 2pl þér hrindizk 2sg þú hrindisk 2pl þér hrindizk
3sg hon hrinzk 3pl þau hrindask 3sg hon hrindisk 3pl þau hrindisk
preterite indicative preterite subjunctive
1sg ek hrundumk 1pl vér hrundumk 1sg ek hryndumk 1pl vér hryndimk
2sg þú hrazk 2pl þér hrunduzk 2sg þú hryndisk 2pl þér hryndizk
3sg hon hrazk 3pl þau hrundusk 3sg hon hryndisk 3pl þau hryndisk
past participle n. hrundizk
imperative 2sg hrizk 1pl hrindumk 2pl hrindizk

PG *hrindaną, OE hrindan III. Imperative variant hrind.

final devoicing  ·  assimilation  ·  cluster reduction

Corpus search: present active / preterite active / present reflexive / preterite reflexive

hrøkkva III “curl”

“recoil; give way, retreat”

common

intransitive

active voice
present indicative present subjunctive
1sg ek hrøkk 1pl vér hrøkkum 1sg ek hrøkkva 1pl vér hrøkkvim
2sg þú hrøkkr 2pl þér hrøkkvið 2sg þú hrøkkvir 2pl þér hrøkkvið
3sg hon hrøkkr 3pl þau hrøkkva 3sg hon hrøkkvi 3pl þau hrøkkvi
preterite indicative preterite subjunctive
1sg ek hrǫkk 1pl vér hrukkum 1sg ek hrykka 1pl vér hrykkim
2sg þú hrǫkkt 2pl þér hrukkuð 2sg þú hrykkir 2pl þér hrykkið
3sg hon hrǫkk 3pl þau hrukku 3sg hon hrykki 3pl þau hrykki
preterite infinitive hrukku
past participle f. hrokkin m. hrokkinn n. hrokkit
imperative 2sg hrøkk 1pl hrøkkum 2pl hrøkkvið

PG *hrenkwaną. Cf. class 1 weak hrøkkva “whip” (PG *hrankwjaną), which does occur in reflexive form with senses “curl; recoil; give way, retreat.” Variants røkkva, hreykva, preterite hraukk.

assimilation  ·  semivowel loss

Corpus search: present active / preterite active

hvelfa III “arch, vault”

fragmentarily attested

? intransitive

active voice
present indicative present subjunctive
1sg ek hvelf 1pl vér hvelfum 1sg ek hvelfa 1pl vér hvelfim
2sg þú hvelfr 2pl þér hvelfið 2sg þú hvelfir 2pl þér hvelfið
3sg hon hvelfr 3pl þau hvelfa 3sg hon hvelfi 3pl þau hvelfi
preterite indicative preterite subjunctive
1sg ek hvalf 1pl vér hulfum 1sg ek hylfa 1pl vér hylfim
2sg þú hvalft 2pl þér hulfuð 2sg þú hylfir 2pl þér hylfið
3sg hon hvalf 3pl þau hulfu 3sg hon hylfi 3pl þau hylfi
preterite infinitive hulfu
past participle f. hólfin m. hólfinn n. hólfit
imperative 2sg hvelf 1pl hvelfum 2pl hvelfið

PG *hwelbaną, weak OE hwylfan 1, Dutch welven, German wölben. Only the past participle is attested; more commonly found as class 3 weak hvalfa (hvalfði, hvalfaðr), holfa (holfði, holfaðr) with sense “capsize.” The causative is hvelfa 1. The present subjunctive, plural indicative, and imperative systems of hvelfa III and hvelfa 3 coincide.

vowel lengthening

Corpus search: present active / preterite active

hverfa III “turn”

“move; go; surround; disappear”

frequent

intransitive

active voice
present indicative present subjunctive
1sg ek hverf 1pl vér hverfum 1sg ek hverfa 1pl vér hverfim
2sg þú hverfr 2pl þér hverfið 2sg þú hverfir 2pl þér hverfið
3sg hon hverfr 3pl þau hverfa 3sg hon hverfi 3pl þau hverfi
preterite indicative preterite subjunctive
1sg ek hvarf 1pl vér hurfum 1sg ek hyrfa 1pl vér hyrfim
2sg þú hvarft 2pl þér hurfuð 2sg þú hyrfir 2pl þér hyrfið
3sg hon hvarf 3pl þau hurfu 3sg hon hyrfi 3pl þau hyrfi
preterite infinitive hurfu
past participle f. horfin m. horfinn n. horfit
imperative 2sg hverf 1pl hverfum 2pl hverfið
middle voice: hverfask
present indicative present subjunctive
1sg ek hverfumk 1pl vér hverfumk 1sg ek hverfumk 1pl vér hverfimk
2sg þú hverfsk 2pl þér hverfizk 2sg þú hverfisk 2pl þér hverfizk
3sg hon hverfsk 3pl þau hverfask 3sg hon hverfisk 3pl þau hverfisk
preterite indicative preterite subjunctive
1sg ek hurfumk 1pl vér hurfumk 1sg ek hyrfumk 1pl vér hyrfimk
2sg þú hvarfzk 2pl þér hurfuzk 2sg þú hyrfisk 2pl þér hyrfizk
3sg hon hvarfsk 3pl þau hurfusk 3sg hon hyrfisk 3pl þau hyrfisk
past participle n. horfizk
imperative 2sg hverfsk 1pl hverfumk 2pl hverfizk

PG *hwerbaną, OE hweorfan III, ME wharven, Dutch werven, German werben. The causative is hverfa 1.

Corpus search: present active / preterite active / present reflexive / preterite reflexive

kløkkva III “grow soft”

“be touched; lament”

less common

intransitive

active voice
present indicative present subjunctive
1sg ek kløkk 1pl vér kløkkum 1sg ek kløkkva 1pl vér kløkkvim
2sg þú kløkkr 2pl þér kløkkvið 2sg þú kløkkvir 2pl þér kløkkvið
3sg hon kløkkr 3pl þau kløkkva 3sg hon kløkkvi 3pl þau kløkkvi
preterite indicative preterite subjunctive
1sg ek klǫkk 1pl vér klukkum 1sg ek klykka 1pl vér klykkim
2sg þú klǫkkt 2pl þér klukkuð 2sg þú klykkir 2pl þér klykkið
3sg hon klǫkk 3pl þau klukku 3sg hon klykki 3pl þau klykki
preterite infinitive klukku
past participle f. klokkin m. klokkinn n. klokkit
imperative 2sg kløkk 1pl kløkkum 2pl kløkkvið

PG *klenkwaną. The causative is kløkkva 1.

assimilation  ·  semivowel loss

Corpus search: present active / preterite active

kreppa III “contract, grow knotty”

fragmentarily attested

intransitive

active voice
present indicative present subjunctive
1sg ek krepp 1pl vér kreppum 1sg ek kreppa 1pl vér kreppim
2sg þú kreppr 2pl þér kreppið 2sg þú kreppir 2pl þér kreppið
3sg hon kreppr 3pl þau kreppa 3sg hon kreppi 3pl þau kreppi
preterite indicative preterite subjunctive
1sg ek krapp 1pl vér kruppum 1sg ek kryppa 1pl vér kryppim
2sg þú krappt 2pl þér kruppuð 2sg þú kryppir 2pl þér kryppið
3sg hon krapp 3pl þau kruppu 3sg hon kryppi 3pl þau kryppi
preterite infinitive kruppu
past participle f. kroppin m. kroppinn n. kroppit
imperative 2sg krepp 1pl kreppum 2pl kreppið

PG *krimpaną, weak OE crympan 2, ME crimpen, MnE crimp, strong Dutch krimpen, German krimpfen “shrink.” Only the past participle is attested with certainty. The causative is kreppa 1; its present subjunctive, imperative, and plural indicative systems coincide with those of the present item.

assimilation

Corpus search: present active / preterite active

kretta III “grumble”

fragmentarily attested

intransitive

active voice
present indicative present subjunctive
1sg ek krett 1pl vér krettum 1sg ek kretta 1pl vér krettim
2sg þú krettr 2pl þér krettið 2sg þú krettir 2pl þér krettið
3sg hon krettr 3pl þau kretta 3sg hon kretti 3pl þau kretti
preterite indicative preterite subjunctive
1sg ek kratt 1pl vér kruttum 1sg ek krytta 1pl vér kryttim
2sg þú krazt 2pl þér kruttuð 2sg þú kryttir 2pl þér kryttið
3sg hon kratt 3pl þau kruttu 3sg hon krytti 3pl þau krytti
preterite infinitive kruttu
past participle f. krottin m. krottinn n. krottit
imperative 2sg krett 1pl krettum 2pl krettið

PG *krintaną. Only the infinitive and preterite singular are attested.

assimilation  ·  cluster reduction

Corpus search: present active / preterite active

melta III “digest”

rare

transitive (acc)

active voice
present indicative present subjunctive
1sg ek melt 1pl vér meltum 1sg ek melta 1pl vér meltim
2sg þú meltr 2pl þér meltið 2sg þú meltir 2pl þér meltið
3sg hon meltr 3pl þau melta 3sg hon melti 3pl þau melti
preterite indicative preterite subjunctive
1sg ek malt 1pl vér multum 1sg ek mylta 1pl vér myltim
2sg þú malzt 2pl þér multuð 2sg þú myltir 2pl þér myltið
3sg hon malt 3pl þau multu 3sg hon mylti 3pl þau mylti
preterite infinitive multu
past participle f. moltin m. moltinn n. moltit
imperative 2sg melt 1pl meltum 2pl meltið
middle voice: meltask (not attested)
present indicative present subjunctive
1sg ek meltumk 1pl vér meltumk 1sg ek meltumk 1pl vér meltimk
2sg þú melzk 2pl þér meltizk 2sg þú meltisk 2pl þér meltizk
3sg hon melzk 3pl þau meltask 3sg hon meltisk 3pl þau meltisk
preterite indicative preterite subjunctive
1sg ek multumk 1pl vér multumk 1sg ek myltumk 1pl vér myltimk
2sg þú malzk 2pl þér multuzk 2sg þú myltisk 2pl þér myltizk
3sg hon malzk 3pl þau multusk 3sg hon myltisk 3pl þau myltisk
past participle n. moltizk
imperative 2sg melzk 1pl meltumk 2pl meltizk

PG *meltaną, OE melt III, ME melten, mostly weak MnE melt, Dutch smelten, German schmelzen. MnE smelt derives from Middle Dutch or Low German. Mostly found as class 1 weak (melti, meltr); we may assume reflexive attestations belong there.

Corpus search: present active / preterite active / present reflexive / preterite reflexive

renna III “run”

“flow; rise; extend; be in heat”

frequent

intransitive

active voice
present indicative present subjunctive
1sg ek renn 1pl vér rennum 1sg ek renna 1pl vér rennim
2sg þú rennr 2pl þér rennið 2sg þú rennir 2pl þér rennið
3sg hon rennr 3pl þau renna 3sg hon renni 3pl þau renni
preterite indicative preterite subjunctive
1sg ek rann 1pl vér runnum 1sg ek rynna 1pl vér rynnim
2sg þú rannt 2pl þér runnuð 2sg þú rynnir 2pl þér rynnið
3sg hon rann 3pl þau runnu 3sg hon rynni 3pl þau rynni
preterite infinitive runnu
past participle f. runnin m. runninn n. runnit
imperative 2sg renn 1pl rennum 2pl rennið
middle voice: rennask “pass, cross”
present indicative present subjunctive
1sg ek rennumk 1pl vér rennumk 1sg ek rennumk 1pl vér rennimk
2sg þú rennsk 2pl þér rennizk 2sg þú rennisk 2pl þér rennizk
3sg hon rennsk 3pl þau rennask 3sg hon rennisk 3pl þau rennisk
preterite indicative preterite subjunctive
1sg ek runnumk 1pl vér runnumk 1sg ek rynnumk 1pl vér rynnimk
2sg þú rannzk 2pl þér runnuzk 2sg þú rynnisk 2pl þér rynnizk
3sg hon rannsk 3pl þau runnusk 3sg hon rynnisk 3pl þau rynnisk
past participle n. runnizk
imperative 2sg rennsk 1pl rennumk 2pl rennizk

PG *rinnaną, OE rinnan III, yrnan III, weak Dutch rennen and the stranded strong participle geronnen “coagulated,” German rinnen. A reinforcing influence on ME rennen, MnE run. The causative is renna 1. Variant rinna, present renn.

assimilation  ·  cluster reduction

Corpus search: present active / preterite active / present reflexive / preterite reflexive

serða III “sodomize”

“have intercourse with”

rare

transitive (acc)

active voice
present indicative present subjunctive
1sg ek serð 1pl vér serðum 1sg ek serða 1pl vér serðim
2sg þú serðr 2pl þér serðið 2sg þú serðir 2pl þér serðið
3sg hon serðr 3pl þau serða 3sg hon serði 3pl þau serði
preterite indicative preterite subjunctive
1sg ek sarð 1pl vér surðum 1sg ek syrða 1pl vér syrðim
2sg þú sart 2pl þér surðuð 2sg þú syrðir 2pl þér syrðið
3sg hon sarð 3pl þau surðu 3sg hon syrði 3pl þau syrði
preterite infinitive surðu
past participle f. sorðin m. sorðinn n. sorðit
imperative 2sg serð 1pl serðum 2pl serðið
middle voice: serðask
present indicative present subjunctive
1sg ek serðumk 1pl vér serðumk 1sg ek serðumk 1pl vér serðimk
2sg þú serzk 2pl þér serðizk 2sg þú serðisk 2pl þér serðizk
3sg hon serzk 3pl þau serðask 3sg hon serðisk 3pl þau serðisk
preterite indicative preterite subjunctive
1sg ek surðumk 1pl vér surðumk 1sg ek syrðumk 1pl vér syrðimk
2sg þú sarzk 2pl þér surðuzk 2sg þú syrðisk 2pl þér syrðizk
3sg hon sarzk 3pl þau surðusk 3sg hon syrðisk 3pl þau syrðisk
past participle n. sorðizk
imperative 2sg serzk 1pl serðumk 2pl serðizk

PG *serdaną, OE seorþan III. Variant streða. Preterite plural forms not attested.

metathesis  ·  epenthesis

Corpus search: present active / preterite active / present reflexive / preterite reflexive

skjalla III “clatter, slam”

less common

intransitive/impersonal transitive (dat)

active voice
present indicative present subjunctive
1sg ek skell 1pl vér skjǫllum 1sg ek skjalla 1pl vér skjallim
2sg þú skellr 2pl þér skjallið 2sg þú skjallir 2pl þér skjallið
3sg hon skellr 3pl þau skjalla 3sg hon skjalli 3pl þau skjalli
preterite indicative preterite subjunctive
1sg ek skall 1pl vér skullum 1sg ek skylla 1pl vér skyllim
2sg þú skallt 2pl þér skulluð 2sg þú skyllir 2pl þér skyllið
3sg hon skall 3pl þau skullu 3sg hon skylli 3pl þau skylli
preterite infinitive skullu
past participle f. skollin m. skollinn n. skollit
imperative 2sg skjall 1pl skjǫllum 2pl skjallið

PG *skellaną, OE scyllan III, ME shillen, weak Dutch, German schallen. Due to orthographical variation between <l> and <ll> in the MSS, the 2sg preterite sometimes coincides with the 2sg present of skulu pretpres (IV). Present variant skell.

breaking  ·  assimilation  ·  cluster reduction

Corpus search: present active / preterite active

skjálfa III “tremble”

common

intransitive

active voice
present indicative present subjunctive
1sg ek skelf 1pl vér skjálfum 1sg ek skjálfa 1pl vér skjálfim
2sg þú skelfr 2pl þér skjálfið 2sg þú skjálfir 2pl þér skjálfið
3sg hon skelfr 3pl þau skjálfa 3sg hon skjálfi 3pl þau skjálfi
preterite indicative preterite subjunctive
1sg ek skalf 1pl vér skulfum 1sg ek skylfa 1pl vér skylfim
2sg þú skalft 2pl þér skulfuð 2sg þú skylfir 2pl þér skylfið
3sg hon skalf 3pl þau skulfu 3sg hon skylfi 3pl þau skylfi
preterite infinitive skulfu
past participle f. skolfin m. skolfinn n. skolfit
imperative 2sg skelf 1pl skelfum 2pl skelfið

PG *skelbaną. Variants skjalfa, preterite skólf.

breaking  ·  vowel lengthening

Corpus search: present active / preterite active

skreppa III “slip”

“skulk; shrink (back)”

rare

intransitive

active voice
present indicative present subjunctive
1sg ek skrepp 1pl vér skreppum 1sg ek skreppa 1pl vér skreppim
2sg þú skreppr 2pl þér skreppið 2sg þú skreppir 2pl þér skreppið
3sg hon skreppr 3pl þau skreppa 3sg hon skreppi 3pl þau skreppi
preterite indicative preterite subjunctive
1sg ek skrapp 1pl vér skruppum 1sg ek skryppa 1pl vér skryppim
2sg þú skrappt 2pl þér skruppuð 2sg þú skryppir 2pl þér skryppið
3sg hon skrapp 3pl þau skruppu 3sg hon skryppi 3pl þau skryppi
preterite infinitive skruppu
past participle f. skroppin m. skroppinn n. skroppit
imperative 2sg skrepp 1pl skreppum 2pl skreppið

PG *skrimpaną, and cf. OE scrimman III; further weak Dutch schrompelen “shrivel,” German schrumpfen “shrivel; shrink.” Likely shares a root with the noun MnE shrimp. The participial adjective typically takes the form skorpinn.

assimilation  ·  metathesis

Corpus search: present active / preterite active

sleppa III “slide, slip”

“escape; fail”

less common

intransitive

active voice
present indicative present subjunctive
1sg ek slepp 1pl vér sleppum 1sg ek sleppa 1pl vér sleppim
2sg þú sleppr 2pl þér sleppið 2sg þú sleppir 2pl þér sleppið
3sg hon sleppr 3pl þau sleppa 3sg hon sleppi 3pl þau sleppi
preterite indicative preterite subjunctive
1sg ek slapp 1pl vér sluppum 1sg ek slyppa 1pl vér slyppim
2sg þú slappt 2pl þér sluppuð 2sg þú slyppir 2pl þér slyppið
3sg hon slapp 3pl þau sluppu 3sg hon slyppi 3pl þau slyppi
preterite infinitive sluppu
past participle f. sloppin m. sloppinn n. sloppit
imperative 2sg slepp 1pl sleppum 2pl sleppið

PG *slempaną, OE gelimpan III “happen.” Connection with weak ME slippen, MnE slip (from Low German or Dutch slippen) contested.

assimilation

Corpus search: present active / preterite active

sletta III “slide”

fragmentarily attested

intransitive

active voice
present indicative present subjunctive
1sg ek slett 1pl vér slettum 1sg ek sletta 1pl vér slettim
2sg þú slettr 2pl þér slettið 2sg þú slettir 2pl þér slettið
3sg hon slettr 3pl þau sletta 3sg hon sletti 3pl þau sletti
preterite indicative preterite subjunctive
1sg ek slatt 1pl vér sluttum 1sg ek slytta 1pl vér slyttim
2sg þú slazt 2pl þér sluttuð 2sg þú slyttir 2pl þér slyttið
3sg hon slatt 3pl þau sluttu 3sg hon slytti 3pl þau slytti
preterite infinitive sluttu
past participle f. slottin m. slottinn n. slottit
imperative 2sg slett 1pl slettum 2pl slettið

PG *slintaną. Shares a root with weak Dutch slenteren “saunter” and the ME, MnE noun slant. Only the preterite singular is attested. More commonly found is its causative sletta 1, whose present subjunctive, imperative, and plural indicative coincide in form with those of the present item.

assimilation  ·  cluster reduction

Corpus search: present active / preterite active

slyngva III “hurl”

“set up; strike a deal”

rare

transitive (dat)

active voice
present indicative present subjunctive
1sg ek slyng 1pl vér slyngum 1sg ek slyngva 1pl vér slyngvim
2sg þú slyngr 2pl þér slyngvið 2sg þú slyngvir 2pl þér slyngvið
3sg hon slyngr 3pl þau slyngva 3sg hon slyngvi 3pl þau slyngvi
preterite indicative preterite subjunctive
1sg ek slǫng 1pl vér slungum 1sg ek slynga 1pl vér slyngim
2sg þú slǫngt 2pl þér slunguð 2sg þú slyngir 2pl þér slyngið
3sg hon slǫng 3pl þau slungu 3sg hon slyngi 3pl þau slyngi
preterite infinitive slungu
past participle f. slungin m. slunginn n. slungit
imperative 2sg slyng 1pl slyngum 2pl slyngvið
middle voice: slyngvask
present indicative present subjunctive
1sg ek slyngumk 1pl vér slyngumk 1sg ek slyngumk 1pl vér slyngvimk
2sg þú slyngsk 2pl þér slyngvizk 2sg þú slyngvisk 2pl þér slyngvizk
3sg hon slyngsk 3pl þau slyngvask 3sg hon slyngvisk 3pl þau slyngvisk
preterite indicative preterite subjunctive
1sg ek slungumk 1pl vér slungumk 1sg ek slyngumk 1pl vér slyngimk
2sg þú slǫngzk 2pl þér slunguzk 2sg þú slyngisk 2pl þér slyngizk
3sg hon slǫngsk 3pl þau slungusk 3sg hon slyngisk 3pl þau slyngisk
past participle n. slungizk
imperative 2sg slyngsk 1pl slyngumk 2pl slyngvizk

PG *slingwaną, OE slingan III, weak Dutch slingeren “swing; meander”; further the nouns Dutch slinger “festoon,” German Schlinge “noose.” The probable source of ME slingen, MnE sling. Variants slyngja, class 1 weak slǫngva.

semivowel loss  ·  j/v-alternation

Corpus search: present active / preterite active / present reflexive / preterite reflexive

snerta III “touch”

“border; concern; discuss”

common

transitive (acc)

active voice
present indicative present subjunctive
1sg ek snert 1pl vér snertum 1sg ek snerta 1pl vér snertim
2sg þú snertr 2pl þér snertið 2sg þú snertir 2pl þér snertið
3sg hon snertr 3pl þau snerta 3sg hon snerti 3pl þau snerti
preterite indicative preterite subjunctive
1sg ek snart 1pl vér snurtum 1sg ek snyrta 1pl vér snyrtim
2sg þú snarzt 2pl þér snurtuð 2sg þú snyrtir 2pl þér snyrtið
3sg hon snart 3pl þau snurtu 3sg hon snyrti 3pl þau snyrti
preterite infinitive snurtu
past participle f. snortin m. snortinn n. snortit
imperative 2sg snert 1pl snertum 2pl snertið
middle voice: snertask
present indicative present subjunctive
1sg ek snertumk 1pl vér snertumk 1sg ek snertumk 1pl vér snertimk
2sg þú snerzk 2pl þér snertizk 2sg þú snertisk 2pl þér snertizk
3sg hon snerzk 3pl þau snertask 3sg hon snertisk 3pl þau snertisk
preterite indicative preterite subjunctive
1sg ek snurtumk 1pl vér snurtumk 1sg ek snyrtumk 1pl vér snyrtimk
2sg þú snarzk 2pl þér snurtuzk 2sg þú snyrtisk 2pl þér snyrtizk
3sg hon snarzk 3pl þau snurtusk 3sg hon snyrtisk 3pl þau snyrtisk
past participle n. snortizk
imperative 2sg snerzk 1pl snertumk 2pl snertizk

PG *snertaną. Also attested as class 1 weak in sense “chug.”

Corpus search: present active / preterite active / present reflexive / preterite reflexive

sperna III “kick”

“tread, trample”

fragmentarily attested

intransitive/transitive (acc)

active voice
present indicative present subjunctive
1sg ek spern 1pl vér spernum 1sg ek sperna 1pl vér spernim
2sg þú spern 2pl þér spernið 2sg þú spernir 2pl þér spernið
3sg hon spern 3pl þau sperna 3sg hon sperni 3pl þau sperni
preterite indicative preterite subjunctive
1sg ek sparn 1pl vér spurnum 1sg ek spyrna 1pl vér spyrnim
2sg þú sparnt 2pl þér spurnuð 2sg þú spyrnir 2pl þér spyrnið
3sg hon sparn 3pl þau spurnu 3sg hon spyrni 3pl þau spyrni
preterite infinitive spurnu
past participle f. spornin m. sporninn n. spornit
imperative 2sg spern 1pl spernum 2pl spernið
middle voice: spernask
present indicative present subjunctive
1sg ek spernumk 1pl vér spernumk 1sg ek spernumk 1pl vér spernimk
2sg þú spernsk 2pl þér spernizk 2sg þú spernisk 2pl þér spernizk
3sg hon spernsk 3pl þau spernask 3sg hon spernisk 3pl þau spernisk
preterite indicative preterite subjunctive
1sg ek spurnumk 1pl vér spurnumk 1sg ek spyrnumk 1pl vér spyrnimk
2sg þú sparnzk 2pl þér spurnuzk 2sg þú spyrnisk 2pl þér spyrnizk
3sg hon sparnsk 3pl þau spurnusk 3sg hon spyrnisk 3pl þau spyrnisk
past participle n. spornizk
imperative 2sg spernsk 1pl spernumk 2pl spernizk

PG *spurnaną, OE spornan III, weak ME spurnen, MnE spurn, Dutch aansporen “spur on,” German spornen “spur,” Latin spernere “spurn, reject.” Variants sporna, spenna. The present subjunctive, plural indicative, and imperative forms of the latter variant coincides with those of spenna 1 “clasp.” Only the preterite singular is attested; also attested as class 1 weak (sperndi, sperndr). The present subjunctive, imperative, and plural indicative systems of the strong and weak verbs coincide.

assimilation  ·  cluster reduction

Corpus search: present active / preterite active / present reflexive / preterite reflexive

spinna III “spin (into a thread)”

rare

transitive (acc)

active voice
present indicative present subjunctive
1sg ek spinn 1pl vér spinnum 1sg ek spinna 1pl vér spinnim
2sg þú spinnr 2pl þér spinnið 2sg þú spinnir 2pl þér spinnið
3sg hon spinnr 3pl þau spinna 3sg hon spinni 3pl þau spinni
preterite indicative preterite subjunctive
1sg ek spann 1pl vér spunnum 1sg ek spynna 1pl vér spynnim
2sg þú spannt 2pl þér spunnuð 2sg þú spynnir 2pl þér spynnið
3sg hon spann 3pl þau spunnu 3sg hon spynni 3pl þau spynni
preterite infinitive spunnu
past participle f. spunnin m. spunninn n. spunnit
imperative 2sg spinn 1pl spinnum 2pl spinnið
middle voice: spinnask
present indicative present subjunctive
1sg ek spinnumk 1pl vér spinnumk 1sg ek spinnumk 1pl vér spinnimk
2sg þú spinnsk 2pl þér spinnizk 2sg þú spinnisk 2pl þér spinnizk
3sg hon spinnsk 3pl þau spinnask 3sg hon spinnisk 3pl þau spinnisk
preterite indicative preterite subjunctive
1sg ek spunnumk 1pl vér spunnumk 1sg ek spynnumk 1pl vér spynnimk
2sg þú spannzk 2pl þér spunnuzk 2sg þú spynnisk 2pl þér spynnizk
3sg hon spannsk 3pl þau spunnusk 3sg hon spynnisk 3pl þau spynnisk
past participle n. spunnizk
imperative 2sg spinnsk 1pl spinnumk 2pl spinnizk

PG *spinnaną, OE spinnan III, ME spinnen, MnE spin, Dutch, German spinnen. Present variant spinn.

assimilation  ·  cluster reduction

Corpus search: present active / preterite active / present reflexive / preterite reflexive

spretta III “jump”

“spring; slip; sprout, grow; burst”

frequent

intransitive

active voice
present indicative present subjunctive
1sg ek sprett 1pl vér sprettum 1sg ek spretta 1pl vér sprettim
2sg þú sprettr 2pl þér sprettið 2sg þú sprettir 2pl þér sprettið
3sg hon sprettr 3pl þau spretta 3sg hon spretti 3pl þau spretti
preterite indicative preterite subjunctive
1sg ek spratt 1pl vér spruttum 1sg ek sprytta 1pl vér spryttim
2sg þú sprazt 2pl þér spruttuð 2sg þú spryttir 2pl þér spryttið
3sg hon spratt 3pl þau spruttu 3sg hon sprytti 3pl þau sprytti
preterite infinitive spruttu
past participle f. sprottin m. sprottinn n. sprottit
imperative 2sg sprett 1pl sprettum 2pl sprettið

PG *sprintaną, OE gesprintan III, with which the ON form merged to become weak ME sprenten, MnE sprint. The causative is spretta 1.

assimilation  ·  cluster reduction

Corpus search: present active / preterite active

springa III “jump, spring”

“burst; be overcome”

frequent

intransitive

active voice
present indicative present subjunctive
1sg ek spring 1pl vér springum 1sg ek springa 1pl vér springim
2sg þú springr 2pl þér springið 2sg þú springir 2pl þér springið
3sg hon springr 3pl þau springa 3sg hon springi 3pl þau springi
preterite indicative preterite subjunctive
1sg ek sprakk 1pl vér sprungum 1sg ek sprynga 1pl vér spryngim
2sg þú sprakkt 2pl þér sprunguð 2sg þú spryngir 2pl þér spryngið
3sg hon sprakk 3pl þau sprungu 3sg hon spryngi 3pl þau spryngi
preterite infinitive sprungu
past participle f. sprungin m. sprunginn n. sprungit
imperative 2sg spring 1pl springum 2pl springið
middle voice: springask
present indicative present subjunctive
1sg ek springumk 1pl vér springumk 1sg ek springumk 1pl vér springimk
2sg þú springsk 2pl þér springizk 2sg þú springisk 2pl þér springizk
3sg hon springsk 3pl þau springask 3sg hon springisk 3pl þau springisk
preterite indicative preterite subjunctive
1sg ek sprungumk 1pl vér sprungumk 1sg ek spryngumk 1pl vér spryngimk
2sg þú sprakkzk 2pl þér sprunguzk 2sg þú spryngisk 2pl þér spryngizk
3sg hon sprakksk 3pl þau sprungusk 3sg hon spryngisk 3pl þau spryngisk
past participle n. sprungizk
imperative 2sg springsk 1pl springumk 2pl springizk

PG *springaną, OE springan III, ME springen, MnE spring, Dutch, German springen. The causative is sprengja 1.

final devoicing  ·  assimilation

Corpus search: present active / preterite active / present reflexive / preterite reflexive

stinga III “stick, stab”

frequent

transitive/impersonal transitive (dat/acc: differs by sense)/intransitive

active voice
present indicative present subjunctive
1sg ek sting 1pl vér stingum 1sg ek stinga 1pl vér stingim
2sg þú stingr 2pl þér stingið 2sg þú stingir 2pl þér stingið
3sg hon stingr 3pl þau stinga 3sg hon stingi 3pl þau stingi
preterite indicative preterite subjunctive
1sg ek stakk 1pl vér stungum 1sg ek stynga 1pl vér styngim
2sg þú stakkt 2pl þér stunguð 2sg þú styngir 2pl þér styngið
3sg hon stakk 3pl þau stungu 3sg hon styngi 3pl þau styngi
preterite infinitive stungu
past participle f. stungin m. stunginn n. stungit
imperative 2sg stikk 1pl stingum 2pl stingið
middle voice: stingask “meddle”
present indicative present subjunctive
1sg ek stingumk 1pl vér stingumk 1sg ek stingumk 1pl vér stingimk
2sg þú stingsk 2pl þér stingizk 2sg þú stingisk 2pl þér stingizk
3sg hon stingsk 3pl þau stingask 3sg hon stingisk 3pl þau stingisk
preterite indicative preterite subjunctive
1sg ek stungumk 1pl vér stungumk 1sg ek styngumk 1pl vér styngimk
2sg þú stakkzk 2pl þér stunguzk 2sg þú styngisk 2pl þér styngizk
3sg hon stakksk 3pl þau stungusk 3sg hon styngisk 3pl þau styngisk
past participle n. stungizk
imperative 2sg stikksk 1pl stingumk 2pl stingizk

PG *stinganą, OE stingan III, ME stingen, MnE sting.

final devoicing  ·  assimilation

Corpus search: present active / preterite active / present reflexive / preterite reflexive

støkkva III “jump”

“spring; flee; come apart; be sprinkled”

frequent

intransitive/impersonal intransitive

active voice
present indicative present subjunctive
1sg ek støkk 1pl vér støkkum 1sg ek støkkva 1pl vér støkkvim
2sg þú støkkr 2pl þér støkkvið 2sg þú støkkvir 2pl þér støkkvið
3sg hon støkkr 3pl þau støkkva 3sg hon støkkvi 3pl þau støkkvi
preterite indicative preterite subjunctive
1sg ek stǫkk 1pl vér stukkum 1sg ek stykka 1pl vér stykkim
2sg þú stǫkkt 2pl þér stukkuð 2sg þú stykkir 2pl þér stykkið
3sg hon stǫkk 3pl þau stukku 3sg hon stykki 3pl þau stykki
preterite infinitive stukku
past participle f. stokkin m. stokkinn n. stokkit
imperative 2sg støkk 1pl støkkum 2pl støkkvið

PG *stinkwaną, OE stincan III, ME stinken, MnE stink, Dutch, German stinken. The causative is støkkva 1.

assimilation  ·  semivowel loss

Corpus search: present active / preterite active

svelga III “swallow”

“swallow up; consume”

less common

transitive (acc)

active voice
present indicative present subjunctive
1sg ek svelg 1pl vér svelgum 1sg ek svelga 1pl vér svelgim
2sg þú svelgr 2pl þér svelgið 2sg þú svelgir 2pl þér svelgið
3sg hon svelgr 3pl þau svelga 3sg hon svelgi 3pl þau svelgi
preterite indicative preterite subjunctive
1sg ek svalg 1pl vér sulgum 1sg ek sylga 1pl vér sylgim
2sg þú svalgt 2pl þér sulguð 2sg þú sylgir 2pl þér sylgið
3sg hon svalg 3pl þau sulgu 3sg hon sylgi 3pl þau sylgi
preterite infinitive sulgu
past participle f. sólgin m. sólginn n. sólgit
imperative 2sg svelg 1pl svelgum 2pl svelgið
middle voice: svelgask
present indicative present subjunctive
1sg ek svelgumk 1pl vér svelgumk 1sg ek svelgumk 1pl vér svelgimk
2sg þú svelgsk 2pl þér svelgizk 2sg þú svelgisk 2pl þér svelgizk
3sg hon svelgsk 3pl þau svelgask 3sg hon svelgisk 3pl þau svelgisk
preterite indicative preterite subjunctive
1sg ek sulgumk 1pl vér sulgumk 1sg ek sylgumk 1pl vér sylgimk
2sg þú svalgzk 2pl þér sulguzk 2sg þú sylgisk 2pl þér sylgizk
3sg hon svalgsk 3pl þau sulgusk 3sg hon sylgisk 3pl þau sylgisk
past participle n. sólgizk
imperative 2sg svelgsk 1pl svelgumk 2pl svelgizk

PG *swelganą, OE swelgan III, ME swolwen, weak MnE swallow, Dutch (ver)zwelgen, weak German schwelgen. Variant svelgja, participle solginn.

vowel lengthening  ·  semivowel loss

Corpus search: present active / preterite active / present reflexive / preterite reflexive

svella III “swell”

less common

intransitive

active voice
present indicative present subjunctive
1sg ek svell 1pl vér svellum 1sg ek svella 1pl vér svellim
2sg þú svellr 2pl þér svellið 2sg þú svellir 2pl þér svellið
3sg hon svellr 3pl þau svella 3sg hon svelli 3pl þau svelli
preterite indicative preterite subjunctive
1sg ek svall 1pl vér sullum 1sg ek sylla 1pl vér syllim
2sg þú svallt 2pl þér sulluð 2sg þú syllir 2pl þér syllið
3sg hon svall 3pl þau sullu 3sg hon sylli 3pl þau sylli
preterite infinitive sullu
past participle f. sollin m. sollinn n. sollit
imperative 2sg svell 1pl svellum 2pl svellið
middle voice: svellask
present indicative present subjunctive
1sg ek svellumk 1pl vér svellumk 1sg ek svellumk 1pl vér svellimk
2sg þú svellsk 2pl þér svellizk 2sg þú svellisk 2pl þér svellizk
3sg hon svellsk 3pl þau svellask 3sg hon svellisk 3pl þau svellisk
preterite indicative preterite subjunctive
1sg ek sullumk 1pl vér sullumk 1sg ek syllumk 1pl vér syllimk
2sg þú svallzk 2pl þér sulluzk 2sg þú syllisk 2pl þér syllizk
3sg hon svallsk 3pl þau sullusk 3sg hon syllisk 3pl þau syllisk
past participle n. sollizk
imperative 2sg svellsk 1pl svellumk 2pl svellizk

PG *swellaną, OE swellan III, ME swellen, partly weak MnE swell, Dutch zwellen, German schwellen. Present variant svell.

assimilation  ·  cluster reduction

Corpus search: present active / preterite active / present reflexive / preterite reflexive

svelta III “die”

“starve”

common

intransitive

active voice
present indicative present subjunctive
1sg ek svelt 1pl vér sveltum 1sg ek svelta 1pl vér sveltim
2sg þú sveltr 2pl þér sveltið 2sg þú sveltir 2pl þér sveltið
3sg hon sveltr 3pl þau svelta 3sg hon svelti 3pl þau svelti
preterite indicative preterite subjunctive
1sg ek svalt 1pl vér sultum 1sg ek sylta 1pl vér syltim
2sg þú svalzt 2pl þér sultuð 2sg þú syltir 2pl þér syltið
3sg hon svalt 3pl þau sultu 3sg hon sylti 3pl þau sylti
preterite infinitive sultu
past participle f. soltin m. soltinn n. soltit
imperative 2sg svelt 1pl sveltum 2pl sveltið
middle voice: sveltask
present indicative present subjunctive
1sg ek sveltumk 1pl vér sveltumk 1sg ek sveltumk 1pl vér sveltimk
2sg þú svelzk 2pl þér sveltizk 2sg þú sveltisk 2pl þér sveltizk
3sg hon svelzk 3pl þau sveltask 3sg hon sveltisk 3pl þau sveltisk
preterite indicative preterite subjunctive
1sg ek sultumk 1pl vér sultumk 1sg ek syltumk 1pl vér syltimk
2sg þú svalzk 2pl þér sultuzk 2sg þú syltisk 2pl þér syltizk
3sg hon svalzk 3pl þau sultusk 3sg hon syltisk 3pl þau syltisk
past participle n. soltizk
imperative 2sg svelzk 1pl sveltumk 2pl sveltizk

PG *sweltaną, OE sweltan III, ME swelten. The causative is svelta 1, whose present subjunctive, plural indicative, and imperative systems coincide with those of the present item.

Corpus search: present active / preterite active / present reflexive / preterite reflexive

sverfa III “file (metal)”

less common

transitive (acc)

active voice
present indicative present subjunctive
1sg ek sverf 1pl vér sverfum 1sg ek sverfa 1pl vér sverfim
2sg þú sverfr 2pl þér sverfið 2sg þú sverfir 2pl þér sverfið
3sg hon sverfr 3pl þau sverfa 3sg hon sverfi 3pl þau sverfi
preterite indicative preterite subjunctive
1sg ek svarf 1pl vér surfum 1sg ek syrfa 1pl vér syrfim
2sg þú svarft 2pl þér surfuð 2sg þú syrfir 2pl þér syrfið
3sg hon svarf 3pl þau surfu 3sg hon syrfi 3pl þau syrfi
preterite infinitive surfu
past participle f. sorfin m. sorfinn n. sorfit
imperative 2sg sverf 1pl sverfum 2pl sverfið
middle voice: sverfask
present indicative present subjunctive
1sg ek sverfumk 1pl vér sverfumk 1sg ek sverfumk 1pl vér sverfimk
2sg þú sverfsk 2pl þér sverfizk 2sg þú sverfisk 2pl þér sverfizk
3sg hon sverfsk 3pl þau sverfask 3sg hon sverfisk 3pl þau sverfisk
preterite indicative preterite subjunctive
1sg ek surfumk 1pl vér surfumk 1sg ek syrfumk 1pl vér syrfimk
2sg þú svarfzk 2pl þér surfuzk 2sg þú syrfisk 2pl þér syrfizk
3sg hon svarfsk 3pl þau surfusk 3sg hon syrfisk 3pl þau syrfisk
past participle n. sorfizk
imperative 2sg sverfsk 1pl sverfumk 2pl sverfizk

PG *swerbaną, OE sweorfan III, ME swerven, weak MnE swerve, Dutch zwerven “roam.” Past participle not attested.

Corpus search: present active / preterite active / present reflexive / preterite reflexive

svimma III “swim”

“stray; wallow”

less common

intransitive

active voice
present indicative present subjunctive
1sg ek svimm 1pl vér svimmum 1sg ek svimma 1pl vér svimmim
2sg þú svimmr 2pl þér svimmið 2sg þú svimmir 2pl þér svimmið
3sg hon svimmr 3pl þau svimma 3sg hon svimmi 3pl þau svimmi
preterite indicative preterite subjunctive
1sg ek svamm 1pl vér summum 1sg ek symma 1pl vér symmim
2sg þú svammt 2pl þér summuð 2sg þú symmir 2pl þér symmið
3sg hon svamm 3pl þau summu 3sg hon symmi 3pl þau symmi
preterite infinitive summu
past participle f. summin m. summinn n. summit
imperative 2sg svimm 1pl svimmum 2pl svimmið
middle voice: svimmask “swindle”
present indicative present subjunctive
1sg ek svimmumk 1pl vér svimmumk 1sg ek svimmumk 1pl vér svimmimk
2sg þú svimmsk 2pl þér svimmizk 2sg þú svimmisk 2pl þér svimmizk
3sg hon svimmsk 3pl þau svimmask 3sg hon svimmisk 3pl þau svimmisk
preterite indicative preterite subjunctive
1sg ek summumk 1pl vér summumk 1sg ek symmumk 1pl vér symmimk
2sg þú svammzk 2pl þér summuzk 2sg þú symmisk 2pl þér symmizk
3sg hon svammsk 3pl þau summusk 3sg hon symmisk 3pl þau symmisk
past participle n. summizk
imperative 2sg svimmsk 1pl svimmumk 2pl svimmizk

PG *swimmaną. Also found as svima IV, which see for cognates and lexical variants. Participial variant sominn.

Corpus search: present active / preterite active / present reflexive / preterite reflexive

syngva III “sing”

“play, produce sound”

frequent

transitive (acc)/intransitive/impersonal intransitive

active voice
present indicative present subjunctive
1sg ek syng 1pl vér syngum 1sg ek syngva 1pl vér syngvim
2sg þú syngr 2pl þér syngvið 2sg þú syngir 2pl þér syngvið
3sg hon syngr 3pl þau syngva 3sg hon syngvi 3pl þau syngvi
preterite indicative preterite subjunctive
1sg ek sǫng 1pl vér sungum 1sg ek synga 1pl vér syngim
2sg þú sǫngt 2pl þér sunguð 2sg þú syngir 2pl þér syngið
3sg hon sǫng 3pl þau sungu 3sg hon syngi 3pl þau syngi
preterite infinitive sungu
past participle f. sungin m. sunginn n. sungit
imperative 2sg syng 1pl syngum 2pl syngvið
middle voice: syngvask
present indicative present subjunctive
1sg ek syngumk 1pl vér syngumk 1sg ek syngumk 1pl vér syngvimk
2sg þú syngsk 2pl þér syngvizk 2sg þú syngvisk 2pl þér syngvizk
3sg hon syngsk 3pl þau syngvask 3sg hon syngvisk 3pl þau syngvisk
preterite indicative preterite subjunctive
1sg ek sungumk 1pl vér sungumk 1sg ek syngumk 1pl vér syngimk
2sg þú sǫngzk 2pl þér sunguzk 2sg þú syngisk 2pl þér syngizk
3sg hon sǫngsk 3pl þau sungusk 3sg hon syngisk 3pl þau syngisk
past participle n. sungizk
imperative 2sg syngsk 1pl syngumk 2pl syngvizk

PG *singwaną, OE singan III, ME singen, MnE sing, Dutch zingen, German singen. Variants syngja, sǫngva, preterite saung, syngu, sǫngu, participle synginn, sǫnginn.

semivowel loss  ·  j/v-alternation

Corpus search: present active / preterite active / present reflexive / preterite reflexive

søkkva III “sink”

common

intransitive

active voice
present indicative present subjunctive
1sg ek søkk 1pl vér søkkum 1sg ek søkkva 1pl vér søkkvim
2sg þú søkkr 2pl þér søkkvið 2sg þú søkkvir 2pl þér søkkvið
3sg hon søkkr 3pl þau søkkva 3sg hon søkkvi 3pl þau søkkvi
preterite indicative preterite subjunctive
1sg ek sǫkk 1pl vér sukkum 1sg ek sykka 1pl vér sykkim
2sg þú sǫkkt 2pl þér sukkuð 2sg þú sykkir 2pl þér sykkið
3sg hon sǫkk 3pl þau sukku 3sg hon sykki 3pl þau sykki
preterite infinitive sukku
past participle f. sokkin m. sokkinn n. sokkit
imperative 2sg søkk 1pl søkkum 2pl søkkvið
middle voice: søkkvask
present indicative present subjunctive
1sg ek søkkumk 1pl vér søkkumk 1sg ek søkkumk 1pl vér søkkvimk
2sg þú søkksk 2pl þér søkkvizk 2sg þú søkkvisk 2pl þér søkkvizk
3sg hon søkksk 3pl þau søkkvask 3sg hon søkkvisk 3pl þau søkkvisk
preterite indicative preterite subjunctive
1sg ek sukkumk 1pl vér sukkumk 1sg ek sykkumk 1pl vér sykkimk
2sg þú sǫkkzk 2pl þér sukkuzk 2sg þú sykkisk 2pl þér sykkizk
3sg hon sǫkksk 3pl þau sukkusk 3sg hon sykkisk 3pl þau sykkisk
past participle n. sokkizk
imperative 2sg søkksk 1pl søkkumk 2pl søkkvizk

PG *sinkwaną, OE sincan III, ME sinken, MnE sink, Dutch zinken, German sinken. Variants sǫkkva, participle sukkinn. Also occurs as a class 1 weak verb with a causative sense, cognate with OE sencan 1, ME senchen, German senken.

assimilation  ·  semivowel loss

Corpus search: present active / preterite active / present reflexive / preterite reflexive

tyggja III “chew”

rare

transitive (acc)

active voice
present indicative present subjunctive
1sg ek tygg 1pl vér tyggjum 1sg ek tyggja 1pl vér tyggim
2sg þú tyggr 2pl þér tyggið 2sg þú tyggir 2pl þér tyggið
3sg hon tyggr 3pl þau tyggja 3sg hon tyggi 3pl þau tyggi
preterite indicative preterite subjunctive
1sg ek tǫgg 1pl vér tuggum 1sg ek tyggja 1pl vér tyggim
2sg þú tǫggt 2pl þér tugguð 2sg þú tyggir 2pl þér tyggið
3sg hon tǫgg 3pl þau tuggu 3sg hon tyggi 3pl þau tyggi
preterite infinitive tuggu
past participle f. tuggin m. tugginn n. tuggit
imperative 2sg tygg 1pl tyggjum 2pl tyggið
middle voice: tyggjask
present indicative present subjunctive
1sg ek tyggjumk 1pl vér tyggjumk 1sg ek tyggjumk 1pl vér tyggimk
2sg þú tyggsk 2pl þér tyggizk 2sg þú tyggisk 2pl þér tyggizk
3sg hon tyggsk 3pl þau tyggjask 3sg hon tyggisk 3pl þau tyggisk
preterite indicative preterite subjunctive
1sg ek tuggumk 1pl vér tuggumk 1sg ek tyggjumk 1pl vér tyggimk
2sg þú tǫggzk 2pl þér tugguzk 2sg þú tyggisk 2pl þér tyggizk
3sg hon tǫggsk 3pl þau tuggusk 3sg hon tyggisk 3pl þau tyggisk
past participle n. tuggizk
imperative 2sg tyggsk 1pl tyggjumk 2pl tyggizk

PG *kewwaną II, OE cēowan II, ME cheuen, weak MnE chew, Dutch kauwen, German kauen. The t may have arisen by analogy with tǫgla “chew.” Earlier form tyggva.

sharpening  ·  semivowel loss

Corpus search: present active / preterite active / present reflexive / preterite reflexive

vella III “boil”

“well up”

common

intransitive

active voice
present indicative present subjunctive
1sg ek vell 1pl vér vellum 1sg ek vella 1pl vér vellim
2sg þú vellr 2pl þér vellið 2sg þú vellir 2pl þér vellið
3sg hon vellr 3pl þau vella 3sg hon velli 3pl þau velli
preterite indicative preterite subjunctive
1sg ek vall 1pl vér ullum 1sg ek ylla 1pl vér yllim
2sg þú vallt 2pl þér ulluð 2sg þú yllir 2pl þér yllið
3sg hon vall 3pl þau ullu 3sg hon ylli 3pl þau ylli
preterite infinitive ullu
past participle f. ollin m. ollinn n. ollit
imperative 2sg vell 1pl vellum 2pl vellið

PG *wellaną, OE weallan III, ME wellen MnE well, weak Dutch (op)wellen, German wellen. Variants valla, present vell. The preterite subjunctive system is identical with that of valda VIIc/3. Past participle not attested.

semivowel loss  ·  assimilation  ·  cluster reduction

Corpus search: present active / preterite active

velta III “roll”

“change; turn out”

common

intransitive/impersonal intransitive

active voice
present indicative present subjunctive
1sg ek velt 1pl vér veltum 1sg ek velta 1pl vér veltim
2sg þú veltr 2pl þér veltið 2sg þú veltir 2pl þér veltið
3sg hon veltr 3pl þau velta 3sg hon velti 3pl þau velti
preterite indicative preterite subjunctive
1sg ek valt 1pl vér ultum 1sg ek ylta 1pl vér yltim
2sg þú valzt 2pl þér ultuð 2sg þú yltir 2pl þér yltið
3sg hon valt 3pl þau ultu 3sg hon ylti 3pl þau ylti
preterite infinitive ultu
past participle f. oltin m. oltinn n. oltit
imperative 2sg velt 1pl veltum 2pl veltið

PG *weltaną, OE wiltan III, weak German wälzen. A dental variant of the IE root yielding weak OE wealwian 2, ME walwen, MnE wallow, Latin volvere.

semivowel loss

Corpus search: present active / preterite active

verða III “become”

“happen, appear; must; perish”

core vocabulary

intransitive/impersonal intransitive/impersonal transitive (dat)

active voice
present indicative present subjunctive
1sg ek verð 1pl vér verðum 1sg ek verða 1pl vér verðim
2sg þú verðr 2pl þér verðið 2sg þú verðir 2pl þér verðið
3sg hon verðr 3pl þau verða 3sg hon verði 3pl þau verði
preterite indicative preterite subjunctive
1sg ek varð 1pl vér urðum 1sg ek yrða 1pl vér yrðim
2sg þú vart 2pl þér urðuð 2sg þú yrðir 2pl þér yrðið
3sg hon varð 3pl þau urðu 3sg hon yrði 3pl þau yrði
preterite infinitive urðu
past participle f. orðin m. orðinn n. orðit
imperative 2sg verð 1pl verðum 2pl verðið
middle voice: verðask
present indicative present subjunctive
1sg ek verðumk 1pl vér verðumk 1sg ek verðumk 1pl vér verðimk
2sg þú verzk 2pl þér verðizk 2sg þú verðisk 2pl þér verðizk
3sg hon verzk 3pl þau verðask 3sg hon verðisk 3pl þau verðisk
preterite indicative preterite subjunctive
1sg ek urðumk 1pl vér urðumk 1sg ek yrðumk 1pl vér yrðimk
2sg þú varzk 2pl þér urðuzk 2sg þú yrðisk 2pl þér yrðizk
3sg hon varzk 3pl þau urðusk 3sg hon yrðisk 3pl þau yrðisk
past participle n. orðizk
imperative 2sg verzk 1pl verðumk 2pl verðizk

PG *werþaną, OE weorþan III, ME worthen, Dutch worden, German werden, Latin vertere “turn.” Preterite plural variant vurðu, participle vorðinn.

semivowel loss

Corpus search: present active / preterite active / present reflexive / preterite reflexive

verpa III “throw”

“build; cover; lay eggs”

frequent

transitive/impersonal transitive (dat/acc: differs by sense)

active voice
present indicative present subjunctive
1sg ek verp 1pl vér verpum 1sg ek verpa 1pl vér verpim
2sg þú verpr 2pl þér verpið 2sg þú verpir 2pl þér verpið
3sg hon verpr 3pl þau verpa 3sg hon verpi 3pl þau verpi
preterite indicative preterite subjunctive
1sg ek varp 1pl vér urpum 1sg ek yrpa 1pl vér yrpim
2sg þú varpt 2pl þér urpuð 2sg þú yrpir 2pl þér yrpið
3sg hon varp 3pl þau urpu 3sg hon yrpi 3pl þau yrpi
preterite infinitive urpu
past participle f. orpin m. orpinn n. orpit
imperative 2sg verp 1pl verpum 2pl verpið
middle voice: verpask
present indicative present subjunctive
1sg ek verpumk 1pl vér verpumk 1sg ek verpumk 1pl vér verpimk
2sg þú verpsk 2pl þér verpizk 2sg þú verpisk 2pl þér verpizk
3sg hon verpsk 3pl þau verpask 3sg hon verpisk 3pl þau verpisk
preterite indicative preterite subjunctive
1sg ek urpumk 1pl vér urpumk 1sg ek yrpumk 1pl vér yrpimk
2sg þú varpzk 2pl þér urpuzk 2sg þú yrpisk 2pl þér yrpizk
3sg hon varpsk 3pl þau urpusk 3sg hon yrpisk 3pl þau yrpisk
past participle n. orpizk
imperative 2sg verpsk 1pl verpumk 2pl verpizk

PG *werpaną, OE weorpan III, ME werpen, Dutch werpen, German werfen. Participial variant vorpinn.

semivowel loss

Corpus search: present active / preterite active / present reflexive / preterite reflexive

vinda III “wind”

“wring; braid; twist; turn; hurl, thrust”

common

transitive (acc)/impersonal intransitive

active voice
present indicative present subjunctive
1sg ek vind 1pl vér vindum 1sg ek vinda 1pl vér vindim
2sg þú vindr 2pl þér vindið 2sg þú vindir 2pl þér vindið
3sg hon vindr 3pl þau vinda 3sg hon vindi 3pl þau vindi
preterite indicative preterite subjunctive
1sg ek vatt 1pl vér undum 1sg ek ynda 1pl vér yndim
2sg þú vazt 2pl þér unduð 2sg þú yndir 2pl þér yndið
3sg hon vatt 3pl þau undu 3sg hon yndi 3pl þau yndi
preterite infinitive undu
past participle f. undin m. undinn n. undit
imperative 2sg vitt 1pl vindum 2pl vindið
middle voice: vindask “turn; hurl oneself”
present indicative present subjunctive
1sg ek vindumk 1pl vér vindumk 1sg ek vindumk 1pl vér vindimk
2sg þú vizk 2pl þér vindizk 2sg þú vindisk 2pl þér vindizk
3sg hon vizk 3pl þau vindask 3sg hon vindisk 3pl þau vindisk
preterite indicative preterite subjunctive
1sg ek undumk 1pl vér undumk 1sg ek yndumk 1pl vér yndimk
2sg þú vazk 2pl þér unduzk 2sg þú yndisk 2pl þér yndizk
3sg hon vazk 3pl þau undusk 3sg hon yndisk 3pl þau yndisk
past participle n. undizk
imperative 2sg vizk 1pl vindumk 2pl vindizk

PG *windaną, OE windan III, ME wīnden, MnE wind, Dutch, German winden. Preterite variant vundu, participle vundinn. The causative is venda 1.

semivowel loss  ·  final devoicing  ·  assimilation  ·  cluster reduction

Corpus search: present active / preterite active / present reflexive / preterite reflexive

vinna III “do, accomplish”

“serve, benefit; cultivate; obtain”

highly frequent

transitive (dat of beneficiary, acc of thing)/intransitive

active voice
present indicative present subjunctive
1sg ek vinn 1pl vér vinnum 1sg ek vinna 1pl vér vinnim
2sg þú vinnr 2pl þér vinnið 2sg þú vinnir 2pl þér vinnið
3sg hon vinnr 3pl þau vinna 3sg hon vinni 3pl þau vinni
preterite indicative preterite subjunctive
1sg ek vann 1pl vér unnum 1sg ek ynna 1pl vér ynnim
2sg þú vannt 2pl þér unnuð 2sg þú ynnir 2pl þér ynnið
3sg hon vann 3pl þau unnu 3sg hon ynni 3pl þau ynni
preterite infinitive unnu
past participle f. unnin m. unninn n. unnit
imperative 2sg vinn 1pl vinnum 2pl vinnið
middle voice: vinnask “suffice”
present indicative present subjunctive
1sg ek vinnumk 1pl vér vinnumk 1sg ek vinnumk 1pl vér vinnimk
2sg þú vinnsk 2pl þér vinnizk 2sg þú vinnisk 2pl þér vinnizk
3sg hon vinnsk 3pl þau vinnask 3sg hon vinnisk 3pl þau vinnisk
preterite indicative preterite subjunctive
1sg ek unnumk 1pl vér unnumk 1sg ek ynnumk 1pl vér ynnimk
2sg þú vannzk 2pl þér unnuzk 2sg þú ynnisk 2pl þér ynnizk
3sg hon vannsk 3pl þau unnusk 3sg hon ynnisk 3pl þau ynnisk
past participle n. unnizk
imperative 2sg vinnsk 1pl vinnumk 2pl vinnizk

PG *winnaną, OE winnan III, ME winnen, MnE win, Dutch, German winnen. Present variants vinn, viþr, preterite vunnu with subjunctive vynni, participle vunninn. Forms coinciding with those of unna pretpres (III) include the preterite plural and subjunctive forms.

semivowel loss  ·  assimilation  ·  cluster reduction

Corpus search: present active / preterite active / present reflexive / preterite reflexive

þryngva III “press, squeeze”

“press forward, throng”

rare

transitive (acc)/intransitive

active voice
present indicative present subjunctive
1sg ek þryng 1pl vér þryngum 1sg ek þryngva 1pl vér þryngvim
2sg þú þryngr 2pl þér þryngvið 2sg þú þryngvir 2pl þér þryngvið
3sg hon þryngr 3pl þau þryngva 3sg hon þryngvi 3pl þau þryngvi
preterite indicative preterite subjunctive
1sg ek þrǫng 1pl vér þrungum 1sg ek þryngva 1pl vér þryngvim
2sg þú þrǫngt 2pl þér þrunguð 2sg þú þryngvir 2pl þér þryngvið
3sg hon þrǫng 3pl þau þrungu 3sg hon þryngvi 3pl þau þryngvi
preterite infinitive þrungu
past participle f. þrungin m. þrunginn n. þrungit
imperative 2sg þryng 1pl þryngum 2pl þryngvið
middle voice: þryngvask
present indicative present subjunctive
1sg ek þryngumk 1pl vér þryngumk 1sg ek þryngumk 1pl vér þryngvimk
2sg þú þryngsk 2pl þér þryngvizk 2sg þú þryngvisk 2pl þér þryngvizk
3sg hon þryngsk 3pl þau þryngvask 3sg hon þryngvisk 3pl þau þryngvisk
preterite indicative preterite subjunctive
1sg ek þrungumk 1pl vér þrungumk 1sg ek þryngumk 1pl vér þryngvimk
2sg þú þrǫngzk 2pl þér þrunguzk 2sg þú þryngvisk 2pl þér þryngvizk
3sg hon þrǫngsk 3pl þau þrungusk 3sg hon þryngvisk 3pl þau þryngvisk
past participle n. þrungizk
imperative 2sg þryngsk 1pl þryngumk 2pl þryngvizk

PG *þrinhaną, OE þringan III, ME thringen, weak MnE throng perhaps with contamination from the noun; Dutch, German dringen, weak German drängen. Variant þryngja. The causative is þrøngva 1.

semivowel loss  ·  j/v-alternation

Corpus search: present active / preterite active / present reflexive / preterite reflexive

þverra III “diminish, wane”

frequent

intransitive

active voice
present indicative present subjunctive
1sg ek þverr 1pl vér þverrum 1sg ek þverra 1pl vér þverrim
2sg þú þverr 2pl þér þverrið 2sg þú þverrir 2pl þér þverrið
3sg hon þverr 3pl þau þverra 3sg hon þverri 3pl þau þverri
preterite indicative preterite subjunctive
1sg ek þvarr 1pl vér þurrum 1sg ek þyrra 1pl vér þyrrim
2sg þú þvarrt 2pl þér þurruð 2sg þú þyrrir 2pl þér þyrrið
3sg hon þvarr 3pl þau þurru 3sg hon þyrri 3pl þau þyrri
preterite infinitive þurru
past participle f. þorrin m. þorrinn n. þorrit
imperative 2sg þverr 1pl þverrum 2pl þverrið

PG *þwersaną. The causative is rare þverra 1.

cluster reduction

Corpus search: present active / preterite active

© P. S. Langeslag 2011, 2021