How to Read These Paradigms

Each entry in the catalog consists of the following elements:

hlæja VI “laugh”

  • Headword, class (in roman numerals for strong, arabic for weak), and first sense. The headword form links to a corpus search for the infinitive; the remainder of this line links to this entry itself.


  • Additional senses.

intransitive/transitive (acc)

  • Usage with or without objects; case.
1sg ek hlæ 1pl vér hlæjum
2sg þú hlær 2pl þér hlæið
  • Inflected forms. Unattested active forms are not explicitly marked. Click on a form to see it used in the corpus.
middle voice: vitrask “appear, esp. in a dream or vision”
  • The reflexive/middle voice title row may list senses of its own. The word form itself links to a corpus search for the reflexive infinitive.

PG *hlahjaną, OE hlyhhan VI, ME laughen, weak MnE laugh, Dutch, German lachen.

  • Reconstructed Proto-Germanic form and cognates medieval and modern. Links to other dictionaries, some of which are behind paywalls.
semivowel loss  ·  consonant lengthening    ·  palatal mutation

  • Sound laws of particular relevance, for consultation in the accompanying grammar (forthcoming in hardcopy only).

Corpus search: present active / preterite active / present reflexive / preterite reflexive

  • Run a corpus search for a range of forms, one tense and voice at a time.

Intellectual Property Notice

For the period of its development if not beyond, this resource is freely accessible online as a favor to students and scholars. In return, I ask that you please do respect my intellectual property and not mirror or republish my data. Thanks to Sean Christ for generously allowing me to build on his data set.